Indonesia’s System of Education
The Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for Indonesia’s four main divisions of education: primary and secondary education; higher education; culture and out-of-school education; and sports. Primary education, which is both free and compulsory, is divided into three semesters. Secondary education is divided into two semesters. There are also many private institutions at all levels.
The language of instruction is Bahasa Indonesia. Local regional languages (primarily Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese) may be used during the first three years of primary school.
Academic Year: Mid-July to mid-June (before 1978, the school year ran from January to December).
Duration: Six Years (Grades 1 to 6)
School Age Average: 6/7 to 12
Leaving exam: The Evaluasi Belajar Tahap Akhir /EBTA or the Evaluasi Belajar Tahap Akhir Nasional: Sekolah Dasar /EBTANAS: SD.
Award: EBTANAS: SD Certificate
Junior Secondary Education
Entry Requirements: EBTANAS: SD Certificate and Primary School Grades
Duration: Three Years (Grades 7-9)
School Age Average: 13 to 15
Leaving Exam: The Evaluasi Belajar Tingkat Akhir Nasional: Sekolah Menengah Pertama /EBTANAS: SMP (National Evaluation of Studies at the Final Level: Junior Secondary School)
Award: Surat Tanda Tamat Belajar Sekolah Menengah Umum Tingkat Pertama/STTB SMP (Junior Secondary School Certificate of Completion)
Senior Secondary School (Academic Track)
Entry Requirements: STTB SMP Certificate
Duration: Three Years (Grades 10-12)
School Age Average: 16 to 18
Courses taken at this level include: economics, chemistry and Indonesian and world history, in addition to various technical, commercial and agricultural subjects. Computing courses and foreign languages other than English are also offered.
Leaving exam: Evaluasi Belajar Tingkat Akhir Nasional: Sekolah Menengah Atas/EBTANAS: SMA (National Evaluation of Studies at the Final Level: Academic Senior Secondary School)
Award: Surat Tanda Tamat Belajar Sekolah Menengah Umum Tingkat Atas/STTB: SMA (Senior Secondary School Certificate of Completion)
Senior Secondary School (Technical/Vocational Track)
Entry Requirements: STTB SMP Certificate
- Sekolah Teknik Menengah (technical senior secondary schools)
- Sekolah Menengah Ekonomi Atas (senior secondary schools of business and commerce)
- Sekolah Menengah Kesejahteraan Keluarga (home economics senior secondary schools)
- Sekolah Menengah Teknologi Kerumahtanggaan (senior secondary schools of home technology)
- Sekolah Menengah Teknologi Grafika (senior secondary school of graphics)
- Sekolah Menengah Teknologi Penerbangan (senior technical schools of aviation)
- Sekolah Menengah Teknologi Perkalapan (senior secondary school of shipping)
- Sekolah Menengah Teknologi Pertanian (senior technical school of agriculture)Four-year programs
- Sekolah Teknik Menengah Pembangunan (senior secondary schools of development)
- Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia (senor secondary schools of dance, drama and music
- Sekolah Menengah Musik (senior secondary schools of music)
- Sekolah Menengah Pekerjan Sosial (senior secondary schools of social work)
Award: Sekolah Teknik Menengah (STM) tradesman or a skilled worker qualification.
- Madrasah Ibtidiyah (primary school)
- Madrasah Tsanawiyah (lower secondary school)
- Madrasah Aliyah (upper secondary school)
Leaving Exam: Evaluasi Belajar Tahap Akhir Nasional/EBTAN
Award: Surat Tanda Tamat Belajar-Madrasah Aliyah (Madrasah Menengah Tingkat Atas)/STTB MA (MMTA)
Entry requirements: Ujian Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negari/UMPTN (Entrance Examination to State Universities)
The Ministry of Education and Culture reports that there are 77 public tertiary institutions and 1,365 private. A partial listing of universities appears at the very end of this section.
- The Accreditation of Academic Programs in Private Tertiary Institutions (before 1997)
1) Equivalent to program in public institution: Disamakan (equalized)
2) Not equivalent to program in public institution: Diakui (recognized)
3) Not equivalent to program in public institution: Terdaftar (registered)
- The Accreditation of Academic Programs in Private Tertiary Institutions (1997 and after)
1) Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi/BAN PT (National Accreditation Board for Tertiary Educational Institutions)
2) For programs in public and private institutions
3) Programs will be accredited at levels A, B, and C
4) Level D = unaccredited
University Higher Education
Programs and Degrees
Stage 1: The Sarjana (S1) degree is awarded after completing four years of study. Professional disciplines (medicine, dentistry, science, pharmacy, engineering, etc.) require an additional two to six semesters.
Stage 2: The Magister (S2) is awarded after two more years of course work and research following the Sarjana, including the writing of a thesis. Admission requires an undergraduate GPA of between 2.5 and 2.75, letters of recommendation and sometimes English language proficiency.
Stage 3: The Doktor (S3) requires additional coursework after the Magister and the writing of a dissertation.
|Indonesian University Graduation Requirements|
|Sarjana 1 (Sarjana Satu)||144 – 160||8|
|Sarjana 2 (Magister)||180 – 194||12|
|Sarjana 3 (Doktor)||230||16|
Non-University Higher Education
Polytechnics: Offer two- to three year programs in engineering technology, agriculture, business administration, accountancy, graphics, publishing and tourism.
Academies: Are single faculty institutions offering technical programs leading to diplomas or certificates.