Bologna Country Update: Norway

By Nick Clark, Assistant Editor, WENR Legislative Framework There are two laws specific to higher education: the 1995 Act on Universities and Colleges and the 1986 Act on the Recognition of Study Programs at, and State Funding of, Private Higher Education Institutions. All institutions of…

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Bologna Country Update: Finland

By Nick Clark, Assistant Editor, WENR Legal Framework The Higher Education Development Act of 1986 includes provisions on the mission of the higher education system, appropriations and their allocation. The Universities Act of 1997 and Decree (1998) include provisions on the mission of the universities,…

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Bologna Country Update: Sweden

By Nick Clark, Assistant Editor, WENR Legislative Framework In April 2002, the Ministry of Education and Science appointed a group to review developments relating to the Bologna Process. A final report, “Degree Review,” will be released by December 2003. For further information, see: http://utbildning.regeringen.se/inenglish/pdf/review_univdegrees.pdf. The…

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Bologna Country Update: Estonia

By Nick Clark, Assistant Editor, WENR Legal Framework The higher education system is binary and consists of universities (ülikool), applied higher education institutions (rakenduskörgkool) and vocational education institutions (kutseöppeasutus) in both the public and the private sector. In 1999, extensive reform with regard to curricula…

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Education in Spain

Robert Sedgwick, Editor, WENR Land Area: 194,913 square miles Capital: Madrid Administrative Divisions: 17 autonomous communities: Andalusia, Aragón, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y León, Catalonia, Valencia, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre and País Vasco (Basque Country). Official Languages:…

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