The Bologna Process: As Seen From the Outside

By Robert Sedgwick, Editor, WENR Across the Atlantic, unbeknownst to many Americans, higher education in Europe is undergoing a profound transformation. More and more countries are uprooting their traditional systems of education, which feature long degrees, in favor of a two-tiered model based on bachelor’s…

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India: The Private Sector Emerges in Higher Education

By Sonja Bhan, WES Group Manager The system of higher education in India is one of the largest in the world. In just four years, the number of universities rose from 178 in 1997 to 256 in 2001. Between 1994 and 1999, more than 500…

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Implementation of the Bologna Declaration: The Czech Republic and Hungary

by Robert Sedgwick, Editor, WENR Until 1989, when the communist Eastern Bloc collapsed, the educational systems in former Czechoslovakia and Hungary were based largely on the Soviet model of higher education. Following independence, new laws were passed in both counties that ended the state monopoly…

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Implementation of the Bologna Declaration: Italy and Austria

by Robert Sedgwick, Editor, WENR Part III: Italy Until quite recently, the Italian university system remained rigidly centralized. During the 1960s and 1970s, increased demand for university degrees brought about the massification of higher education in Italy, which in turn necessitated a complete overhaul of…

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