Implementation of the Bologna Declaration: The Czech Republic and Hungary

by Robert Sedgwick, Editor, WENR Until 1989, when the communist Eastern Bloc collapsed, the educational systems in former Czechoslovakia and Hungary were based largely on the Soviet model of higher education. Following independence, new laws were passed in both counties that ended the state monopoly…

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Implementation of the Bologna Declaration: Italy and Austria

by Robert Sedgwick, Editor, WENR Part III: Italy Until quite recently, the Italian university system remained rigidly centralized. During the 1960s and 1970s, increased demand for university degrees brought about the massification of higher education in Italy, which in turn necessitated a complete overhaul of…

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The Bologna Process

by Robert Sedgwick, Editor, eWENR A Europe of knowledge is now widely recognized as an irreplaceable factor for social and human growth and as an indispensable component to consolidate and enrich the European citizenship, capable of giving its citizens the necessary competences to face the…

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Implementation of the Bologna Declaration: Germany

by Robert Sedgwick, Editor, eWENR German unification in 1990 ushered in an educational reform program aimed largely at superimposing the West German system of higher education over the eastern system. Some of the changes included updating technical standards, increasing enrollments and downsizing faculty and staff…

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